“The Modern Greek Enlightenment and Revolution” – An original history research paper by rootsnwingz

Historical Background

On the 29th of May 1453, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, was conquered after a long siege by the Ottoman armed forces, led by the twenty-one-year-old Fatih Sultan Mehmed II. The siege of Constantinople by the Ottomans signified the fall of Byzantium and the end an era, that is its millennium-long reign in the Mediterranean region. In addition, it meant that most of the geographical area that is today known as Greece, fell under Turkish rule.   The Ottoman occupation of Greece lasted for the following four hundred years, a period commonly referred to as Tourkokratia (Τουρκοκρατία) (Cogg C 1992, 3). The Tourkokratia is usually considered an oppressive time, mainly due to the imposition of religious restrictions, heavy, unjust taxation and the practice of Paidomazoma (Παιδομάζωμα) or Janissary levy, which translates from Greek as the gathering of children. This practice refers to the enforced obligation of each and every Christian family to surrender their best looking and most intelligent children to be raised as Muslim; the corps of the Janissaries would then conscript these Greek-in-origin youths and train them to be elite soldiers (Clogg C 1992, 14). Significantly, because of the Paidomazoma, Greeks were forced to fight alongside Turks and, most often, against fellow Christian populations.

However, the outbreak of the Greek Revolution, also known as the Greek War of Independence, did not begin until March 1821, after nearly four hundred year of atrocities, economic decline and oppression. The outbreak is celebrated on March 25th every year by tradition not because the revolution actually began that day. In the 18th and 19th century, we observe in Europe the growth of certain liberal movements, including revolutionary nationalism, Philhellenism and the Diafotismos (Διαφωτισμός), i.e. the modern Greek Enlightenment. Furthermore, in 1814, a secret organization, Philiki Etairia (Φιλική Εταιρεία), is founded. Driven by the ideas of the Enlightenment, the goal of these Greek revolutionaries was to overthrow Turkish rule.

In 1828, following seven years of violent revolts and battles, both on land and at sea, the Ottomans surrendered and were forced out of the Peloponnese and Central Greece. In May 1832, the Convention of London takes place, where Greece is finally recognized by the Great Powers (Russia, France, U.K.) as a free, independent, but monarchical, nation. The Greek Kingdom’s initial territory after the end of the revolution solely included the limited territorial gains of the war. Interestingly, Greece did not have jurisdiction over the entire geographical region it controls today until as late as 1947, that is after World War II.

Introduction of Topic & Methodology

            In a nutshell, my project consists of using primary sources in order: a) to assess to what extent the Diafotismos was an anti-imperial and anti-colonial ideology and b) to gain an in-depth understanding of how the transmission of its radical ideas contributed to the successful Greek uprising and revolution in 1821 against the Ottoman rule. These were my central initial research questions. Therefore, my intention is to take advantage of my knowledge of modern Greek and use the writings of the key intellectuals of the movement, i.e. Adamantios Korais and Rigas Pheraios, with the goal of forwarding my central argument, mainly that the Diafotismos was vital to the Greek uprising. Since there is notable overlap between the Greek Enlightenment and the Philhellenism in Western Europe, I also intend to use the writings of second-generation English Romantic poets, especially Lord Byron. The aim here is to better comprehend the Western powers’ attitude towards Greek nationalists as well as the Turkish rulers. In effect, the literary work of these intellectuals, both the philhellenes and the proponents of the Diafotismos, prepared the grounds for an uprising and influenced the outcome of the revolution. Finally, I will attempt to determine whether one can rightfully speak, in general, of a subaltern, anti-colonial Enlightenment. Secondary sources on the Philiki Etairia and its role are also implemented. Moreover, some secondary sources are used on the humanitarian intervention at the battle of Navarino to better comprehend the Western powers’ a) sympathetic attitude towards Greek nationalists and b) their problems with the Turkish rulers.

Thesis & Original Contribution

Essentially, Greece’s successful revolution was not an isolated event but more of a seven year long process. It can be attributed to numerous anti-imperial factors, both internal (e.g. Philiki Etairia, Diafotismos) and external (e.g. philhellenism, the decline of the Ottoman Empire, military and navy assistance, other European intellectual movements, complex diplomatic relations, etc.). So how important was the Diafotismos really? Would Greece have gained independence regardless? In this essay, I will argue that, as a matter of fact, the Modern Greek Enlightenment’s most important accomplishment and contribution to the War of Independence is that it served as the awakening instrument, which laid down the intellectual foundations for the Greek struggle of independence by exacerbating nationalism and by planting the seed of freedom. Beyond that, other factors led up to the ultimate success of the revolution and Greece’s recognition as an independent nation. In this light, my essay’s original contribution to the subject of Empire is the challenge to the notion of a general anti-imperial European Enlightenment movement, whereas its chief goal is to delineate the roles of philhellenism, Diafotismos and intervention within the framework of the Greek revolution. Continue reading


“Censorship and the Third Section: How thinking became dangerous in 19th Century Russia”, an original history research paper by rootsnwingz


When Nicholas I succeeded his older brother Alexander and became the tsar of Russia in late 1825, the attitude of the state towards its subjects changed dramatically. Nicholas’s thirty year long autocratic rule is characterized by oppressive reforms aimed at maintaining the status quo and preventing dissent in a time of socio-political instability and uncertainty. Any kind of unconventional thought or criticism of the state had to be considered a threat to the tsar’s authority and, as a consequence, Nicholas sought complete control over what could be safely published. Strict censorship laws were enacted, while a secret police, which became known as the “Third Section”, was re-established in order to regulate the press. Writers who refused to obey the tsar’s guidelines and wished to be the sole authority over their writings’ style and content were ruthlessly persecuted.

But was Nicholas’s austerity paranoid? In fact, Nicholas had real reasons to be concerned about his position on the throne and to worry about dissent. First of all, when he came to power, he immediately had to deal with the Decembrist Uprising. This uprising is generally understood as the manifestation of the educated elite’s disappointment with Alexander’s liberal, yet ineffective, government. More notably, it “produced the first open confrontation between the autocracy and members of the intelligentsia.” (Shatz, 31)

Despite the fast suppression of the Decembrist Uprising, Nicholas was left convinced that he had to adopt stricter policies. Moreover, keeping in mind that at the same time in the 19th century, revolutionary movements were blooming all over Europe, he must have been terrified by the possibility of the creation of an influential movement of dissent. “The very foundations of autocratic rule were menaced by the changes in social thought brought about by the growth of revolutionary successes abroad and their influence on internal politics at home” (Squire, 48).

As a result, the priority of Nicholas’s reforms was to ensure that public opinion agreed with the government’s views and thus, censorship and persecution on the grounds of crimes of thought reached unprecedented heights in Russian history. The success of the French revolution was also the reason why Nicholas denounced French philosophy and the Enlightenment ideas, which had been propagated in the 18th century by Catherine the Great. In the 19th century, however, such ideologies were considered dangerous. Nevertheless, Nicholas was not afraid of all Western thought. In fact, he was particularly fond of German philosophy, such as Hegel and the other “Idealists”. Therefore, the cultural shift from France to Germany reflects that the tsar had carefully observed the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars and had thus witnessed the double risk of overexpansion and fall of autocracy, which were probably his two biggest fears.

The Decembrist Uprising played a vital role in ascertaining the divide between the government’s interests and the interests of the people, especially the educated elite. In this sense, Nicholas’s adversaries were now identifiable; they were the writers, poets and playwrights who dared to challenge –either directly or subliminally- the state’s authority over the people. Therefore, perhaps for the first time, the intelligentsia was recognized as the most influential threat to the existing order in Russia. The fact that Nicholas now regarded the intelligentsia as the state’s visible internal enemy explains the abundance of repression that freethinking intellectuals faced in the second quarter of the 19th century. In other words, the absurdity of the censorship laws and the birth of the secret police affirm Nicholas’s fearfulness of the intelligentsia.

Therefore, the present research paper is an examination of Nicholas’s censorship laws and the “Third Section’s” activity. I primarily aim to demonstrate how the intelligentsia had a real effect on the society they lived in and belonged to, which in turn became a serious cause of concern for the authorities and has led to atrocious and oppressive government responses. In addition, I intend to look into the ways “intelligenty” overcame or eluded national policing, as well as the cases where they were less fortunate and paid a heavy price for their mental freedom. Specifically, illustrative examples from the lives of Alexander Herzen and Mikhail Bakunin will be provided to help the reader get a clearer idea of the limitations and sufferings they endured due to Nicholas’s repression. The fact that poets and novelists were exiled or sent off to mental asylums suggests that, historically, Russian authorities have been deeply troubled by the intelligentsia’s activity, especially its capacity to change sociopolitical structures and express dissent from the autocracy. This is why I believe that an inquiry into the censorship laws and the “Third Section” will serve to contextualize the intelligentsia’s experience under the rule of Nicholas I.

Continue reading

Epistemology: Belief, Knowledge & Pragmatism, an original essay by 420randomness

Guest Post by 420randomness, translated from Greek into English by rootsnwingz for our English-speaking readers!

Epistemology: Belief, Knowledge & Pragmatism

According to recent scientific evidence … living within reason … we find ourselves in a blind existence without any archetypes, where everything seems to happen anyways, for no reason at all !

~ 1.1 Expression ~

one stimulus makes you twice as stimulated becomes one stimulus does not stimulate you at all

In other words, “Once bitten, twice shy,” becomes “Once bitten, never shy,”

But what can we do, if we can’t learn about a subject when we lack the relevant experience in that subject matter?

~~And thus, the rhythms of the natural world are still unappreciated~~

However, let us take a closer look

Passage from: “How We Believe”, Michael Shermer. Scientific American,

‘’I argue that our brains are belief engines: evolved pattern-recognition machines that connect the dots and create meaning out of the patterns that we think we see in nature. Sometimes A really is connected to B; sometimes it is not. When it is, we have learned something valuable about the environment from which we can make predictions that aid in survival and reproduction. We are the

ancestors of those most successful at finding patterns

This process is called association learning, and it is fundamental to all animal behavior, from the humble worm C. elegans to H. sapiens.’’

~ 1.2 Scientific Reference ~

Using evolutionary modeling and having a demonstration through it, Harvard University biologist Kevin R. Foster and University of Helsinki biologist Hanna Kokko in ’08, tested the theory and tried to have a gist out of it:

They begin with the formula pb > c,

where a belief may be held when the cost (c) of doing so is less than the probability (p) of the benefit (b). For example, believing that the rustle in the grass is a dangerous predator when it is only the wind does not cost much, but believing that a dangerous predator is the wind may cost an animal its life!!

 <.Think about it as you consider the following image.>


natural selection will favor patternicity

Continue reading

Sluggish Schizophrenia in the Soviet Union , an original short essay by rootsnwingz

From its very early stages in the 18th century, Russian psychiatric theory viewed mental disorders as the result of “functional changes in cerebral activity or brain injuries” (Miller, 15). Although Stalin’s social reorganization condemned and politicized psychoanalytic theory and practice, the 1930s saw vital development in psychopathology, especially in the field of clinical symptomatology thanks to the work of P.B. Gannushkin. One of Gannushkin’s successors, G.E. Sukhareva, suggested an alternative classification model for the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia, rejecting Kraepelin’s original system (Miller, 16).

Essentially, the new model suggested that by examining the lifelong course of schizophrenia, as opposed to simply the symptoms, the disorder could be divided into two distinct types: ‘sluggish’ or ‘chronic’ on the one hand, and on the other, ‘acute’ or ‘periodic’. Sluggish schizophrenia referred to the continuous form, “which developed at varying levels of severity with periodic remissions during the life history of the patient”(Miller, 16). Soviet psychiatrists believed that there is usually a biogenetic, biochemical, neurological and physiological etiology for schizophrenia, which is triggered by the environment and manifested as a psychotic episode. The patient’s realization of his disorder’s facets and roots was considered critical to Soviet psychotherapy and, as a result, therapies aimed to be “short-term, supportive and very specific” (Miler, 17).

Critics have argued that this classification system of schizophrenia often leads to misdiagnosis or overdiagnosis because genetic inheritance with physiological manifestation is assumed more often as the etiology than cultural or individual causes (Miller, 20). Furthermore, Soviet psychiatry is often criticized for labeling its patients by “imposing an unsubstantiated diagnosis on a patient which will itself have negative consequences, both on the patient’s conception of self and in terms of the suspicious way he will then be regarded at home and at the workplace” (Miller, 20). This is largely due to the fact that any Russian, who was politically oppositional to Soviet authority and power, was in general deemed insane. Therefore, sluggish schizophrenia was thought to be manifested as a distortion of political reality by minds that were slow to realize the perceptions of Soviet reality. Substantial evidence is found for this in the establishment of special psychiatric hospitals for their ‘re-education’.

Patients were thus often regarded as political adversaries on top of being looked down upon for being insane by both the public and doctors, when they were not even mentally ill. In my view, this is what is insane. When the general population accepts that standing up or questioning political authority is always a sign of madness, then the population has evidently been tricked by those whose wealth would be threatened by any exposure of the existing established system’s injustice. This is what leads me to believe that the labeling impact of sluggish schizophrenia was merely an immoral scare tactic employed to condemn any act of resistance  as madness and to label any person unsatisfied with the political structure as mad. Fear and prevention of political dissent or an uprising could well be the underlying factors behind the phenomenon of labeling discussed above.

Nevertheless, it is unfair to condemn the entire profession even though it was abused to a certain extent, for one must keep in mind that a lot of propaganda was in play at the time, and consequently people were mostly exposed to one-sided and exaggerated portrayals of what was actually going on. Moreover, despite its drawbacks, it is undeniable that Soviet psychiatric theory & practice made some genuine and fruitful attempts to explore numerous explanations and treatments for mental illness.

Works Cited:

Miller, Martin A. The Theory and Practice of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union. 1985.

“Επιστημολογία: Πιστεύω, Γνώση & Πραγματισμός”

Σύμφωνα με πρόσφατες επιστημονικές αποδείξεις … ζώντας λογικά … βρισκόμαστε σε μια τυφλή, χωρίς πρότυπα ύπαρξη όπου τα πάντα συμβαίνουν φαινομενικά χωρίς λόγο … έτσι και αλλιώς!

~ 1.1 Η Έκφραση ~

το ένα ερέθισμα, σε κάνει δύο φορές ερεθισμένο γίνεται το ένα ερέθισμα, δεν σε ερεθίζει καθόλου

Τι να κάνουμε, αλλά δεν μπορείς να μάθεις για κάτι εάν δεν έχεις και την αντίστοιχη εμπειρία στο θέμα

~~και γι’αυτό οι ρυθμοί του φυσικού κόσμου συνεχίζουν να είναι παραγνωρισμένοι~~

Ας ρίξουμε όμως μια ματιά

Απόσπασμα από: How We Believe , Michael Shermer. Scientific American,

“Συμφωνώ με όσους υποστηρίζουν ότι οι εγκέφαλοί μας είναι μηχανές πεποίθησης: εξελίκτικά μηχανήματα αναγνώρισης προτύπων που συνδέουν τις τελείες για να δημιουργήσουν νόημα από τα σχέδια που νομίζουμε ότι βλέπουμε στη φύση. Μερικές φορές το Α πραγματικά συνδέεται με το Β. Μερικές φορές όχι. Όταν συνδέεται, έχουμε μάθει κάτι πολύτιμο για το περιβάλλον από το οποίο μπορούμε να κάνουμε προβλέψεις που βοηθούν στην επιβίωση και την αναπαραγωγή. Ούτως ή άλλως είμαστε

 –οι πρόγονοι αυτονών οι οποίοι ήταν οι πιο επιτυχημένοι στην εξεύρεση μοτίβων-

Αυτή η διαδικασία ονομάζεται ένωση μάθησης, και είναι θεμελιώδους σημασίας για τη συμπεριφορά όλων των ζώων, από το ταπεινό σκουλήκι C. elegans στους H. sapiens .”

~ 1.2 Επιστημονική Αναφορά ~

Η βιολόγος Kevin R. Foster και το Πανεπιστήμιο του βιολόγου Hanna Kokko στο Ελσίνκι, με χρήση εξελικτικών βιολογικών μοντέλων (ΑΗΑ) και με μια επίδειξη μέσα από αυτά στο Πανεπιστήμιο του Χάρβαρντ,  το ’08, δοκίμασαν τη θεωρία και προσπάθησαν να βγάλουν μια ουσία από αυτήν:

Έχει να κάνει με τον απλό τύπο pb> c που μπορεί να εξηγηθεί με το παρακάτω παράδειγμα.

‘Ενα πιστεύω για κάτι, μπορεί να πραγματοποιηθεί όταν το κόστος (c) για αυτό είναι μικρότερο από την πιθανότητα (p) του οφέλους (b) . Για παράδειγμα, πιστεύοντας ότι το θρύισμα στις φυλλωσιές είναι ένα επικίνδυνο αρπακτικό όταν είναι μόνο ο άνεμος, δεν κοστίζει πολύ, αλλά  το πιστεύω ότι ένα επικίνδυνο αρπακτικό είναι ο άνεμος μπορεί να κοστίσει σε ένα ζώο τη ζωή του!

 <.σκεφτείτε το και με την από κάτω φωτογραφία.>

η φυσική επιλογή θα ευνοήσει μια δημιουργία μοτίβου Continue reading

“Hallucination and Madness”, an original history essay by rootsnwingz

Note from the author: The present academic paper focuses on the way hallucinations have been perceived and treated by societies from a historical perspective.  As it was originally written in the summer of 2010 for a university class, entitled Madness and Society in Historical Perspective, I would like to take the opportunity to thank my classmates and professors for one of the most interesting and inspiring trips I’ve ever taken academically.

Hallucination and Madness

“I’m not completely sure we aren’t all living in a hallucination now”,
–           Marc Maron

“It is sometimes an appropriate response to reality to go insane.”
–           Phillip K. Dick

“And how do you know that you’re mad? ‘To begin with,’ said the Cat, ‘a dog’s not mad. You grant that?’ I suppose so, said Alice. ‘Well then,’ the Cat went on, ‘you see a dog growls when it’s angry, and wags its tale when it’s pleased. Now I growl when I’m pleased, and wag my tail when I’m angry. Therefore I’m mad.’”
–           Lewis Carroll

Examining hallucination from a historical perspective is not a pleasant task. Although hallucination is an ancient phenomenon, most societies throughout history have condemned those who courageously admitted to and talked about this sort of experience, be it auditory, as in hearing voices when no sound source exists, or visual, as in seeing things that are not really there. On the other hand, certain cultures accepted hallucinations as meaningful to the individual or the society in whole. But, generally, hallucination was considered a sign of insanity, i.e. a symptom of mental illness, or even the devil’s work and anyone who would claim having such experiences would be labeled mad or possessed.

In my essay, by showing that endogenous etiologies, such as trauma and abuse, have been discovered for hallucination, I will argue that considering it a disorder that could be explained supernaturally was wrong. Further, I will show that as a result of ignoring the physical basis of hallucination, its treatment was immoral, in the sense that people who had hallucinations that they did not understand and that they were scared of, were often deemed insane, whereas a genuinely moral and actually effective attempt to heal them would have aimed at helping them recall the traumatic experience that triggered the hallucinations, accept it as real and face up to it. Obviously, my overview of the history of hallucination and its treatment throughout history cannot be 100% comprehensive. However, I will use a variety of historical cases to forward my argument and to portray the multifaceted nature of hallucination as best as I possibly can. Ultimately, though, the central message I want to impart the reader with is that due to misinformation concerning hallucination and how it worked, serious problems arose in its treatment that persist, to a certain extent, even in modern societies. Continue reading

Mutiny Aboard the Slave Ships in the 18th century: Implications for the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Original Research Paper written by rootsnwingz 3 years ago on the historical significance of mutiny during the slave trade.  Many thanks to my professor, classmates and the librarians who helped me with my research. 

Mutiny Aboard the Slave Ships in the 18th century: 
Implications for the Transatlantic Slave Trade

mutinyMural painted by Hale Woodruff.

“The trade of slaves is in a more peculiar manner the business of kings, rich men, and prime merchants, exclusive of the inferior sort of Blacks.”
– John Barbot, European Slave Trader (1682)

The present research paper primarily deals with the phenomenon of resistance onboard ships by Africans against their enslavement during what is commonly referred to as the “Middle Passage”, i.e. the voyage across the Atlantic from the West Coast of Africa to the Americas. Insurrections of this kind flourished in the 17th and 18th centuries and had an undeniable impact on numerous aspects of the slave trade, including the slave traders themselves, who were forced to adapt to these new conditions of the transatlantic slave trade.

Therefore, I will make use of primary accounts of mutiny aboard the slave ships from the 18th century with the hopes of gaining a better understanding of its impact on the slave trade. In short, I intend to argue that the slave traders generally considered mutiny as merely a financial setback and thus the adoption of measures to prevent or restrain insurrections became a priority for the management and organization of slave ships. The ultimate point this paper hopes to make is that mutiny had a real effect on the slave trade, in the sense that it made the business of trading slaves more costly and risky for the European traders, which consequently reduced shipments to the New World. Continue reading

“Critical analysis of the concept of the witch”, original essay by rootsnwingz

What is a witch? Most people imagine witches as evil, ugly, old and dangerous women; others associate the word “witch” with magic and depictions of witches as shown in the popular media, e.g. Bewitched, Harry Potter, etc. Regardless of whether the word “witch” has a positive or negative connotation in today’s language, culture and understanding, when one examines witches and their persecution in historical perspective it becomes evident that these stereotypes are misconceptions. In reality, the witch-hunts were a very sad story of injustice and cruelty, involving the vilification and torment of countless innocent women.

The witch hunts took place over many centuries and over both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, the witch hunts were not uniform; they happened for different reasons and in different societies. Furthermore, the true nature of the witch hunts has been masked by the misinformation, biased superstition and propaganda that has been fed to the public by those groups who were in power and responsible for these massacres. In my view, this is why the word “witch” has a negative connotation in the modern English language. Calling someone a witch is rarely meant as a compliment. Consequently, I hope to demonstrate that it is not analytically sound to generalize about witches and witch hunts for that is what has led to the majority’s confusion about what these women actually were and about what really happened to them.

So were witches real? Yes, that is to say witch beliefs and practices indeed existed. However, not all the people who were killed during the witch hunts were witches. As mentioned above, most of them were innocent of the crimes they were accused of.  This brings us to the meaning of witchcraft.

Witchcraft is a kind of explanatory system –not based on science- used by society to explain natural misfortunes. In other words, witches were the scapegoats , i.e. they were blamed for undermining the world and their sacrifice was not only considered just, but also beneficial for the rest of society. Continue reading

‘Are women treated “egalitarianly” in egalitarian societies?’, an original essay by rootsnwingz


Members of an egalitarian society are, by definition, considered to be equals, i.e. they have the same status despite their diversity in terms of race, social class, income, or in this case, gender. Therefore, in principle, women in egalitarian societies have an equally important social role and responsibility as men do, or there is a general semblance of equality. In an egalitarian society, both men and women have equal influence and thus have equal opportunity to assume positions of authority. Nevertheless, although hunter-gatherer societies were more egalitarian than today’s segregated socioeconomic cultures, one may still observe differences between men and women’s roles, and even some degree of inequity.

The experiences of women in egalitarian foraging societies as described by Marjorie Shostak in her book, “Nisa, the life and words of a !Kung woman”, testify to a higher degree of gender equality in bushman societies than in non-egalitarian modern ones. However, they also shed some light into why men still managed to assume greater authority in some instances and why their contribution was often valued more than women’s. In spite of these slight gender differences, the author argues that foraging societies were a lot less stratified than today’s market-based societies, where gender hierarchies are prevalent. In other words, she suggests that:

Perhaps the extremes of subordination of women by men found in many of today’s more socioeconomically ‘advanced’ cultures are only a relatively recent aberration in our long, human calendar.” (Shostak 2000, 214)

In my view, the emergence of gender hierarchies is directly related to the shift from hunting and gathering towards a settler’s life and the development of market economies. Continue reading

“Cannabis: Mesopotamia & Egypt”, essay by Conner North

Published by the online magazine INITY, this essay explains how ancient hieroglyphics record the medicinal use of cannabis by ancient civilizations. The well written article presents some very informative and important evidence. Here’s an interesting excerpt:

Mesopotamia (3000 BC) & Egypt (2000 BC)

Trickling from ancient China, cannabis made its way to Mesopotamia and Egypt, and only recently, in the 19th and 20th Centuries, has ancient hieroglyphics been deciphered along with cannabis’ medicinal use. As with the ancient Chinese, Mesopotamians and Egyptians overstood and embraced the significance of natural remedies, including cannabis, and were in harmony with their environment and the cosmos.

Our knowledge of ancient medicine is derived almost exclusively from the great library of clay tablets gathered throughout history. Roughly 30,000 fragments of ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian clay tablets exist, which may have well numbered over 100,000 when complete.

Throughout Mesopotamian tablets and Egyptian scrolls, similar references are made to the medicinal use of cannabis as a remedy for:

Acute pain
Trench foot/gout/sore feet
Gynecological disorders
Colorectal illness

It’s interesting to note some of the ancient medicinal uses of cannabis are the same as today’s conditions that enable eligibility to get a red card (in Colorado and some other states) and become a legal MMJ patient, like acute, or chronic, pain.

While medical technology and philosophy has evolved leaps and bounds and epic discoveries have been made, as we technologically advance, it’s hard to ignore the detachment from the environment and nature that comes with these advancements. Granted, we shouldn’t be heading back to the Stone Age anytime soon, medically speaking, but in retrospect and in comparison to ancients, we have lost touch with naturalness. Plants and other natural elements were used by ancients to combat medical issues that we still face today.

For the full article go to: http://inityweekly.com/mmj-mesopotamia-egypt/

To view an original Assyrian tablet with a translation listing cannabis as a natural remedy for treating bruises and swelling click here: http://antiquecannabisbook.com/chap2B/Assyria/K6261.htm